Chapter 13 Section 1 Western Civilization Notes
Renaissance – The term means “rebirth”. It refers to the time period where there was a revival in art and learning. It lasted approximately from the years 1300-1600.
Humanism- An intellectual movement that focused on human potential and achievements. Humanists influenced artists and architects to carry on Classical traditions.
Secular- worldly rather than spiritual and concerned with the here and now.
Patron- someone who financially supported artists while they were creating their work.
Perspective – the artistic technique which shows three dimensions on a flat surface.
Vernacular- the language of the people
What are some of the characteristics of the “Renaissance Man” and the “Renaissance Woman”?
Man – Excelled in many fields, charming, witty, educated, politically powerful
Woman – Well educated in the classics, charming, modest, Knowledgeable in the arts
How did Italy’s cities help to make it the birthplace of the Renaissance?
Cities offered wealth, talent, and new ideas.
What was the attitude of Church leaders and the wealthy toward the arts? Why?
They supported the arts because they wanted to beautify their communities and show their own importance.
How did the study of the classics influence branches of learning such as history, literature and philosophy?
Study of classical texts led to a different outlook on life, one emphasizing human potential and achievements.
How is the humanism of the Renaissance reflected in its art? Explain your examples.
Renaissance art such as “David” celebrates the human body and individual achievement.
What were the differences between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance in the attitude toward worldly pleasures?
In the Middle Ages, some people believed that denial of worldy pleasures would please God. During the Renaissance, many believed that God intended them to enjoy things.
Chapter 13 Section 2 Western Civilization Notes
The Legacy of the Renaissance
The European Renaissance was a period of great artistic and social change. It marked a break with medieval-period ideals focused around the church. The Renaissance belief in the dignity of the individual played a key role in the gradual rise of democratic ideals. Furthermore, the impact of the movable-type printing press was tremendous. Some historians have suggested that its effects were even more dramatic than the arrival of personal computers in the 20th century. Below is a summary of the changes that resulted from the Renaissance.
Changes in the Arts
*Art drew on techniques and styles of Classical Rome and Greece.
*Paintings and sculptures portrayed individuals and nature in more realistic and lifelike ways.
*Artists created works that were secular as well as those that were religious.
*Writers began to use vernacular languages to express their ideas.
*The arts praised individual achievement.
Changes in Society
*Printing changed society by making more information available and inexpensive enough for society at large.
*A greater availability of books prompted an increased desire for learning and a rise in literacy throughout Europe.
*Published accounts of new discoveries, maps, and charts led to further discoveries in a variety of fields.
*Published legal proceedings made the laws clear so that people were more likely to understand their rights.
*Christian humanists’ attempts to reform society changed views about how life should be lived.
* People began to question political structures and religious practices.
Renaissance ideas continue to influence European thought-including religious thought.
utopia - In Greek the word means 'no place" today it has come to refer to "the perfect place"
William Shakespeare - a famous writer of the Elizabethan Age
Johann Gutenberg - a craftsman from Germany that invented movable type
History of bookmaking:
*2700 b.c. Egyptians write books on papyrus scrolls
*1000bc Chinese make books on papyrus scrolls.
*a.d. 300 Romans write on sheets of parchment (treated animal skin)
*a.d. 800 Irish monks hand write and hand illustrate "The Book of Kells".
*About 1455 Gutenberg prints the first complete book on the printing press.
Why do you think the Bible was the first book printed with movable type?
How would you compare and contrast the impact of the printing press with the impact of the internet?
WC/chapter 13 Section 3
Main Idea: Martin Luther’s protest over abuses in the Catholic Church led to the founding of Protestant Churches.
Why It Matters Now: Nearly one-fifth of the Christians in today’s world are Protestants.
Terms and Names
Indulgence – a pardon for sin
Reformation- a movement of religious reform
Lutheran- A separate religious group inspired by Martin Luther
Protestant- applied to Christians who belonged to non-Catholic churches.
Peace of Augsburg- a religious agreement in which German princes decide the religion of his state.
Annul- the Pope’s ability to set aside sin (pardon from sin)
Anglican- The Church of England led by Queen Elizabeth
Which effect of the Reformation brought on the most permanent effect?
*Lutheran Church founded (most permanent effect)
From where did the term Protestantism originate?
From Germans who protested
What political, economic, and social factors helped bring about the Reformation?
Political – rise of competing states; rulers resented pope’s control
Economic- rulers jealous of Church’s wealth; merchants resented paying Church taxes
Social – People question Church; printing presses spread ideas critical of Church
What impact did Henry VIII’s actions have on England in the second half of the 1500s?
His children brought religious turmoil by switching from Protestant to Catholic and back.
Explain how Elizabeth I was able to bring a level of religious peace to England.
Her church was acceptable to moderate Catholics and moderate Protestant. The church kept some elements of Catholic service.
Chapter 13 Section 4 Notes
The Reformation Continues
Religious and Ethical Systems: As Protestant reformers divided over beliefs, the Catholic Church made reforms.
Why it Matters Now
Many Protestant churches began during this period, and many Catholic schools, are the result of the reforms in the Church.
Terms & Names
predestination- The belief that God has known since the beginning of time who will be saved.
Calvinism- The religion based on predestination was called Calvinism after John Calvin.
theocracy- a government controlled by religious leaders
Presbyterian- a member of a Protestant church governed by presbyters(elders) and founded on the teachings of John Knox
Anabaptist- in the Reformation, a member of a Protestant group that believed in baptizing only those who were old enough to decide to be Christian and believed in the separation of church and state
- a 16th century movement in which the Roman Catholic Church sought to make changes in response to the Protestant Reformation
Jesuits- members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic religious order founded by Ignatius of Loyola
Council of Trent- a meeting of Roman Catholic leaders, called by Pope Paul III to rule on doctrines criticized by the Protestant reformers.
Actions by the Church Reasons
Set up a meeting of Cardinals (council) to investigate the selling of
indulgences and other abuses
Set up a meeting of church leaders to sate Catholic beliefs clearly
(council of Trent), which met for
more than ten years
Approved the order of Jesuits to support this new religious order
which established schools and
did missionary work
Started Inquistition to punish people who broke the rules
of the Church
What was Calvin's idea of the "elect" and their place in society?
"Elect" were the few God chose to be saved, They had a high place in society.
What role did noblewomen play in the Reformation?
Noblewomen, such as Marquerite of Navarre, protected reformers.
What were the goals of the Jesuits?
improve Catholic education, convert non-Christians, stop spread of Protestantism
How did the Reformation set the stage for the modern world? Give examples.
Protestant churches grew; Catholic Church became more unified and established schools and universities; strong nation-states developed.
The History of Book Making
- 2700 BC Egyptians wrote books on scrolls
- 1000 BC Chinese make books by writing on strips of bamboo
- 300AD Romans write on parchment (raised animal skins)
- 800AD Irish monk handwrote and illustrate The Book of Kells
- 1455 Johann Gutenberg prints the first complete book using a printing press
The importance of the printing press
*more people became literate
*spread of ideas
*education more widespread
*tradition ideas were challenged
* more jobs created in the printing industry
Major causes behind the Renaissance ideology
*new discoveries in science and math
*appreciation of the arts
*appreciation of the individual’s worth
*learning institutions became public